The influence of revolutionary Shi'ite Islam grew apace in the region, particularly in countries with large Shi'ite populations, especially Iraq. Farouk was thin early in his reign but later gained weight. It is believed more than 40 suspects died during interrogation or while in detention.
After the oil crisis of , France had changed to a more pro-Arab policy and was accordingly rewarded by Saddam with closer ties. He made a state visit to France in , cementing close ties with some French business and ruling political circles.
In Saddam negotiated an accord with Iran that contained Iraqi concessions on border disputes. In return, Iran agreed to stop supporting opposition Kurds in Iraq. Saddam initiated Iraq's nuclear enrichment project in the s, with French assistance.
The first Iraqi nuclear reactor was named by the French " Osirak ". Osirak was destroyed on 7 June  by an Israeli air strike Operation Opera.
Nearly from its founding as a modern state in , Iraq has had to deal with Kurdish separatists in the northern part of the country. The result was brutal fighting between the government and Kurdish groups and even Iraqi bombing of Kurdish villages in Iran, which caused Iraqi relations with Iran to deteriorate.
However, after Saddam had negotiated the treaty with Iran, the Shah withdrew support for the Kurds, who suffered a total defeat. The influence of revolutionary Shi'ite Islam grew apace in the region, particularly in countries with large Shi'ite populations, especially Iraq. Saddam feared that radical Islamic ideas—hostile to his secular rule—were rapidly spreading inside his country among the majority Shi'ite population. There had also been bitter enmity between Saddam and Khomeini since the s.
Khomeini, having been exiled from Iran in , took up residence in Iraq, at the Shi'ite holy city of An Najaf. There he involved himself with Iraqi Shi'ites and developed a strong, worldwide religious and political following against the Iranian Government, which Saddam tolerated. However, when Khomeini began to urge the Shi'ites there to overthrow Saddam and under pressure from the Shah, who had agreed to a rapprochement between Iraq and Iran in , Saddam agreed to expel Khomeini in to France.
However this turned out to be an imminent failure and a political catalyst, for Khomeini had access to more media connections and also collaborated with a much larger Iranian community under his support which he used to his advantage. After Khomeini gained power, skirmishes between Iraq and revolutionary Iran occurred for ten months over the sovereignty of the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway, which divides the two countries. During this period, Saddam Hussein publicly maintained that it was in Iraq's interest not to engage with Iran, and that it was in the interests of both nations to maintain peaceful relations.
However, in a private meeting with Salah Omar al-Ali, Iraq's permanent ambassador to the United Nations , he revealed that he intended to invade and occupy a large part of Iran within months. Later probably to appeal for support from the United States and most Western nations , he would make toppling the Islamic government one of his intentions as well.
Iraq invaded Iran, first attacking Mehrabad Airport of Tehran and then entering the oil-rich Iranian land of Khuzestan , which also has a sizable Arab minority, on 22 September and declared it a new province of Iraq. With the support of the Arab states, the United States, and Europe, and heavily financed by the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Saddam Hussein had become "the defender of the Arab world" against a revolutionary Iran. The only exception was the Soviet Union, who initially refused to supply Iraq on the basis of neutrality in the conflict, although in his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev claimed that Leonid Brezhnev refused to aid Saddam over infuriation of Saddam's treatment of Iraqi communists.
Consequently, many viewed Iraq as "an agent of the civilized world". Instead Iraq received economic and military support from its allies, who conveniently overlooked Saddam's use of chemical warfare against the Kurds and the Iranians and Iraq's efforts to develop nuclear weapons.
In the first days of the war, there was heavy ground fighting around strategic ports as Iraq launched an attack on Khuzestan. After making some initial gains, Iraq's troops began to suffer losses from human wave attacks by Iran. By , Iraq was on the defensive and looking for ways to end the war. At this point, Saddam asked his ministers for candid advice. Riyadh Ibrahim suggested that Saddam temporarily step down to promote peace negotiations. Initially, Saddam Hussein appeared to take in this opinion as part of his cabinet democracy.
A few weeks later, Dr. Ibrahim was sacked when held responsible for a fatal incident in an Iraqi hospital where a patient died from intravenous administration of the wrong concentration of potassium supplement.
Ibrahim was arrested a few days after he started his new life as a sacked minister. He was known to have publicly declared before that arrest that he was "glad that he got away alive.
Iraq quickly found itself bogged down in one of the longest and most destructive wars of attrition of the 20th century. During the war, Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranian forces fighting on the southern front and Kurdish separatists who were attempting to open up a northern front in Iraq with the help of Iran. These chemical weapons were developed by Iraq from materials and technology supplied primarily by West German companies as well as  using dual-use technology imported following the Reagan administration 's lifting of export restrictions.
The United States also supplied Iraq with "satellite photos showing Iranian deployments". Ostensibly, this was because of improvement in the regime's record, although former United States Assistant Secretary of Defense Noel Koch later stated, "No one had any doubts about [the Iraqis'] continued involvement in terrorism The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran.
Saddam reached out to other Arab governments for cash and political support during the war, particularly after Iraq's oil industry severely suffered at the hands of the Iranian navy in the Persian Gulf.
Iraq successfully gained some military and financial aid, as well as diplomatic and moral support, from the Soviet Union, China, France, and the United States, which together feared the prospects of the expansion of revolutionary Iran's influence in the region.
The Iranians, demanding that the international community should force Iraq to pay war reparations to Iran, refused any suggestions for a cease-fire. Despite several calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council , hostilities continued until 20 August On 16 March , the Kurdish town of Halabja was attacked with a mix of mustard gas and nerve agents , killing 5, civilians, and maiming, disfiguring, or seriously debilitating 10, more.
The United States now maintains that Saddam ordered the attack to terrorize the Kurdish population in northern Iraq,  but Saddam's regime claimed at the time that Iran was responsible for the attack  which some [ who? The bloody eight-year war ended in a stalemate. There were hundreds of thousands of casualties with estimates of up to one million dead. Neither side had achieved what they had originally desired and at the borders were left nearly unchanged.
The southern, oil rich and prosperous Khuzestan and Basra area the main focus of the war, and the primary source of their economies were almost completely destroyed and were left at the pre border, while Iran managed to make some small gains on its borders in the Northern Kurdish area.
Both economies, previously healthy and expanding, were left in ruins. Saddam borrowed tens of billions of dollars from other Arab states and a few billions from elsewhere during the s to fight Iran, mainly to prevent the expansion of Shi'a radicalism. However, this had proven to completely backfire both on Iraq and on the part of the Arab states, for Khomeini was widely perceived as a hero for managing to defend Iran and maintain the war with little foreign support against the heavily backed Iraq and only managed to boost Islamic radicalism not only within the Arab states, but within Iraq itself, creating new tensions between the Sunni Ba'ath Party and the majority Shi'a population.
Faced with rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure and internal resistance, Saddam desperately re-sought cash, this time for postwar reconstruction. The campaign takes its name from Surat al-Anfal in the Qur'an , which was used as a code name by the former Iraqi Ba'athist administration for a series of attacks against the peshmerga rebels and the mostly Kurdish civilian population of rural Northern Iraq, conducted between and culminating in This campaign also targeted Shabaks and Yazidis , Assyrians , Turkoman people and Mandeans and many villages belonging to these ethnic groups were also destroyed.
Human Rights Watch estimates that between 50, and , people were killed. The end of the war with Iran served to deepen latent tensions between Iraq and its wealthy neighbor Kuwait. Saddam pushed oil-exporting countries to raise oil prices by cutting back production; Kuwait refused, however. Kuwait was pumping large amounts of oil, and thus keeping prices low, when Iraq needed to sell high-priced oil from its wells to pay off a huge debt.
Saddam had always argued that Kuwait was historically an integral part of Iraq, and that Kuwait had only come into being through the maneuverings of British imperialism; this echoed a belief that Iraqi nationalists had voiced for the past 50 years. This belief was one of the few articles of faith uniting the political scene in a nation rife with sharp social, ethnic, religious, and ideological divides.
The extent of Kuwaiti oil reserves also intensified tensions in the region. The oil reserves of Kuwait with a population of 2 million next to Iraq's 25 were roughly equal to those of Iraq. Taken together, Iraq and Kuwait sat on top of some 20 percent of the world's known oil reserves; as an article of comparison, Saudi Arabia holds 25 percent.
Saddam complained to the U. State Department that Kuwait had slant drilled oil out of wells that Iraq considered to be within its disputed border with Kuwait. Saddam still had an experienced and well-equipped army, which he used to influence regional affairs. He later ordered troops to the Iraq—Kuwait border. As Iraq-Kuwait relations rapidly deteriorated, Saddam was receiving conflicting information about how the U. For one, Washington had been taking measures to cultivate a constructive relationship with Iraq for roughly a decade.
Reacting to Western criticism in April Saddam threatened to destroy half of Israel with chemical weapons if it moved against Iraq. They are inspired by America to undermine Arab interests and security. Saddam stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq "would not accept death". Bush and James Baker did not want force used, they would not take any position on the Iraq—Kuwait boundary dispute and did not want to become involved.
Later, Iraq and Kuwait met for a final negotiation session, which failed. Saddam then sent his troops into Kuwait. As tensions between Washington and Saddam began to escalate, the Soviet Union, under Mikhail Gorbachev, strengthened its military relationship with the Iraqi leader, providing him military advisers, arms and aid. On 2 August , Saddam invaded Kuwait, initially claiming assistance to "Kuwaiti revolutionaries," thus sparking an international crisis.
On 4 August an Iraqi-backed " Provisional Government of Free Kuwait " was proclaimed, but a total lack of legitimacy and support for it led to an 8 August announcement of a "merger" of the two countries. On 28 August Kuwait formally became the 19th Governorate of Iraq.
Just two years after the Iraq and Iran truce, "Saddam Hussein did what his Gulf patrons had earlier paid him to prevent. When later asked why he invaded Kuwait, Saddam first claimed that it was because Kuwait was rightfully Iraq's 19th province and then said "When I get something into my head I act.
That's just the way I am. The ability for Saddam Hussein to pursue such military aggression was from a "military machine paid for in large part by the tens of billions of dollars Kuwait and the Gulf states had poured into Iraq and the weapons and technology provided by the Soviet Union, Germany, and France.
Shortly before he invaded Kuwait, he shipped new Mercedes Series cars to top editors in Egypt and Jordan. Two days before the first attacks, Saddam reportedly offered Egypt's Hosni Mubarak 50 million dollars in cash, "ostensibly for grain". Bush responded cautiously for the first several days.
On one hand, Kuwait, prior to this point, had been a virulent enemy of Israel and was the Persian Gulf monarchy that had the most friendly relations with the Soviets. Britain profited heavily from billions of dollars of Kuwaiti investments and bank deposits.
Bush was perhaps swayed while meeting with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher , who happened to be in the U. Cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union made possible the passage of resolutions in the United Nations Security Council giving Iraq a deadline to leave Kuwait and approving the use of force if Saddam did not comply with the timetable. Saddam's officers looted Kuwait, stripping even the marble from its palaces to move it to Saddam's own palace.
During the period of negotiations and threats following the invasion, Saddam focused renewed attention on the Palestinian problem by promising to withdraw his forces from Kuwait if Israel would relinquish the occupied territories in the West Bank , the Golan Heights , and the Gaza Strip.
Saddam's proposal further split the Arab world, pitting U. The allies ultimately rejected any linkage between the Kuwait crisis and Palestinian issues.
Saddam ignored the Security Council deadline. Backed by the Security Council, a U. Israel, though subjected to attack by Iraqi missiles, refrained from retaliating in order not to provoke Arab states into leaving the coalition. A ground force consisting largely of U. On 6 March , Bush announced "What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea—a new world order , where diverse nations are drawn together in common cause to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind: In the end, the out-numbered and under-equipped Iraqi army proved unable to compete on the battlefield with the highly mobile coalition land forces and their overpowering air support.
Some , Iraqis were taken prisoner and casualties were estimated at over 85, As part of the cease-fire agreement, Iraq agreed to scrap all poison gas and germ weapons and allow UN observers to inspect the sites. UN trade sanctions would remain in effect until Iraq complied with all terms. Saddam publicly claimed victory at the end of the war. Iraq's ethnic and religious divisions, together with the brutality of the conflict that this had engendered, laid the groundwork for postwar rebellions.
In the aftermath of the fighting, social and ethnic unrest among Shi'ite Muslims, Kurds, and dissident military units threatened the stability of Saddam's government. Uprisings erupted in the Kurdish north and Shi'a southern and central parts of Iraq, but were ruthlessly repressed. Uprisings in , led to the death of ,—, people, mostly civilian.
The United States, which had urged Iraqis to rise up against Saddam, did nothing to assist the rebellions. The Iranians, despite the widespread Shi'ite rebellions, had no interest in provoking another war, while Turkey opposed any prospect of Kurdish independence, and the Saudis and other conservative Arab states feared an Iran-style Shi'ite revolution. Saddam, having survived the immediate crisis in the wake of defeat, was left firmly in control of Iraq, although the country never recovered either economically or militarily from the Gulf War.
Saddam routinely cited his survival as "proof" that Iraq had in fact won the war against the U. This message earned Saddam a great deal of popularity in many sectors of the Arab world. John Esposito, however, claims that "Arabs and Muslims were pulled in two directions. That they rallied not so much to Saddam Hussein as to the bipolar nature of the confrontation the West versus the Arab Muslim world and the issues that Saddam proclaimed: Arab unity, self-sufficiency, and social justice.
Saddam Hussein might be wrong, but it is not America who should correct him. Saddam, therefore, increasingly portrayed himself as a devout Muslim, in an effort to co-opt the conservative religious segments of society. Some elements of Sharia law were re-introduced, and the ritual phrase " Allahu Akbar " "God is great" , in Saddam's handwriting, was added to the national flag.
Saddam also commissioned the production of a " Blood Qur'an ", written using 27 litres of his own blood, to thank God for saving him from various dangers and conspiracies. The United Nations sanctions placed upon Iraq when it invaded Kuwait were not lifted, blocking Iraqi oil exports. During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis.
Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions. Also during the s, President Bill Clinton maintained sanctions and ordered air strikes in the "Iraqi no-fly zones" Operation Desert Fox , in the hope that Saddam would be overthrown by political enemies inside Iraq.
Western charges of Iraqi resistance to UN access to suspected weapons were the pretext for crises between and , culminating in intensive U. After two years of intermittent activity, U. Former CIA case officer Robert Baer reports that he "tried to assassinate" Saddam in ,  amid "a decade-long effort to encourage a military coup in Iraq.
Saddam continued involvement in politics abroad. Video tapes retrieved after show his intelligence chiefs meeting with Arab journalists, including a meeting with the former managing director of Al-Jazeera, Mohammed Jassem al-Ali, in In , Austrian prosecutors investigated Saddam government's transactions with Fritz Edlinger that possibly violated Austrian money laundering and embargo regulations.
In , a resolution sponsored by the European Union was adopted by the Commission for Human Rights, which stated that there had been no improvement in the human rights crisis in Iraq. The statement condemned President Saddam Hussein's government for its "systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law ".
The resolution demanded that Iraq immediately put an end to its "summary and arbitrary executions Many members of the international community, especially the U. Bush spoke of an " axis of evil " consisting of Iran, North Korea, and Iraq. Moreover, Bush announced that he would possibly take action to topple the Iraqi government, because of the threat of its weapons of mass destruction. Bush stated that "The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax , and nerve gas , and nuclear weapons for over a decade Iraq continues to flaunt its hostility toward America and to support terror.
During the renewed inspections beginning in November , Blix found no stockpiles of WMD and noted the "proactive" but not always "immediate" Iraqi cooperation as called for by UN Security Council Resolution Talking for more than three hours, he denied possessing any weapons of mass destruction, or any other weapons prohibited by UN guidelines.
He also expressed a wish to have a live televised debate with George W. Bush , which was declined. It was his first interview with a U. Saddam Hussein later told an FBI interviewer that he once left open the possibility that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction in order to appear strong against Iran.
The Iraqi government and military collapsed within three weeks of the beginning of the U. By the beginning of April, U. The resistance of the much-weakened Iraqi Army either crumbled or shifted to guerrilla tactics, and it appeared that Saddam had lost control of Iraq.
He was last seen in a video which purported to show him in the Baghdad suburbs surrounded by supporters. When Baghdad fell to U. In April , Saddam's whereabouts remained in question during the weeks following the fall of Baghdad and the conclusion of the major fighting of the war. Various sightings of Saddam were reported in the weeks following the war, but none was authenticated. At various times Saddam released audio tapes promoting popular resistance to his ousting.
Saddam was placed at the top of the " U. In July , his sons Uday and Qusay and year-old grandson Mustapha were killed in a three-hour gunfight with U. Cosmo from Team Aqua or Team Magma, the majority of the area is not accessible to player characters until late in the game, when the HM Waterfall is available. Of interest to trainers is the rare Dragon Pokémon Bagon , which is only found deep inside the caves.
Additionally, in Emerald , the player character may challenge Steven Stone after defeating the Elite Four. Pyre is a Pokémon graveyard, similar to Kanto's Pokémon Tower. It consists of two areas: Pyre is considered the counterpart of the Cave of Origin the cave where life begins , as Mt. Pyre is "the place where life ends".
Atop the mountain is an old couple who guard two orbs, the Red Orb and Blue Orb. They are the grandparents of Phoebe of the Elite Four.
Pyre plays a major role in the video games. In Ruby player characters have to battle with Team Magma members as they steal the Blue Orb to control Groudon , while in Sapphire and Emerald , the player character is forced to battle Team Aqua members who are trying to steal the Red Orb to control Kyogre. Pyre, providing closure to the game's main plot.
The Cave of Origin is located at the north end of Sootopolis City. Its opposite landmark is Mt. Pyre , said to be the place where life ends. Residents of Sootopolis are not permitted to enter the Cave of Origin. The contents of the cave are different in each game: In Ruby and Sapphire, the player character finds Groudon or Kyogre, respectively, and must defeat or capture it to proceed.
After performing the necessary steps to quell the ancient Pokémon, player characters can enter the Gym and battle Wallace Ruby and Sapphire or his mentor Juan Emerald. Both use Water-type Pokémon. It holds many trainers aspiring to reach the Pokémon League.
During some point in Victory Road, a boy named Wally will catch up to the player character and battle. The player character originally mentored Wally at the beginning of the game, and Wally has matured into a strong opponent. Since most of the cave is dark, it is harder to explore without the use of Flash. The Sky Pillar is an abandoned tower to the north-east of Pacifidlog Town that is home to very strong Pokémon.
Though an optional dungeon in Ruby and Sapphire, it plays a major role in Emerald; the player character needs to go to Sky Pillar to summon Rayquaza to solve the fight between Kyogre and Groudon in Sootopolis City.
When the player character reaches the top of Sky Pillar in Emerald, the second visit , Rayquaza can be fought and captured. Its motto is "Win it all and be the best, Trainers! Tidal Ticket from the protagonist's father, Norman.
After journeying on the newly completed ship, the player character will gain the option to visit the Battle Tower. Concern, v, asar k. Confide, v itimad k. Contrary, a nruklialif, kliilaf, bar-aks.
Sara, bigra ; fasid, kharab ; Corrupter, s. Cost, s, qimat, baha ; kharch ; nuqsan. Covert, a, khufiya, pinhan. Cozen, a', daga k. CRU Criminal court, s. Cultivation, 1 ziraat, jotai ; tarbfyat, Culture, J S ' arastagi.
Curse, 5, bad-dua, lanat, sarap; bala, Cursory, ct. Decorum, s, shaistagi, saliqa, imtiyaz, munasabat. Deed of gift, s. Delegate, v, bliejna, rawana k. Depredation, s lut, garat, takht-o-taraj. Depth, s- gaihrao, umaq ; darmiyan. Desolate 1 , a. Bust, der, kaliil, dhnna, Dilemma, s. Diminutive, a,, chhota, kuchak, khurd. Dominion, s, hukumat, padshahat, sal- tanat ; diyar, nahiya, raj. Dwindle, v, ghatna, sukarna, kam h. Mj cbaiii; lahut, bukh ; usani ; Ball Ease, v.
E mcrgen cy ,s. Tiaukri-men Inuana, masligul k. Epicure, s, shikam-parwar, aiyash, pctu. E ltu'l , v. Ki iii;al lc, a. I'smvi maz- liab-men laiia. Evil- speak ing, s. Li] erimeiit ; s. Face to face, ad. Faintness, s t gash: Firo-Uy, s, juguu, kirmak-i-sliabtab. Flourish, v tar-o-taza h. Flowei 1 , 'C. Force, v, zor-se karana, zabar-dasti k. Fortu i ; i-war,iiek-bakht,bakh- tyar, saaclat-inand. F-rrt ui lately, ad. Cj a samara, nafa. Gnat, s, machchhar, kutki, pashsha. Khuda, Allah-tala ; but.
Khudaf, uluhiyat ; Khuda. Headland, s, sar-i-zamm, ras-i-jubal. Heedful, a khabardar, mutawajjih, hosh- Heel, s. Helterskelter, ad, ulajhpulajh, be-tartib- Hem, s. Homicide, s, mardum-kusli ya kushi. Illumine, ' ujala k. Jia sh, cliliaj a, asar, tasir ; ". Inadvertent, a gafil, be-khabar, kahil. Innermost, a, sab-se bhitari, daruni. G 2 Institute, s.
Intent, a, mashgul, masruf, sai, dliunf. INT 80 Intention, s. I tiiii -rate, u. Latchct, s, sallu, tasma, kafshband. Less, a, kamtar, kam, thora. Ictiui, ]inrna, daraz h. Meantime, " ad, isdarmiyan, ismabain- Meanwhile, j men,isarse-meu,isbicli- men ; darasna-i-wa t. Mercantile, a, tijaratf, saudagari-ka, ba- Mercenary, a. Mingle, v, milna, milana, amez h. Mixed, a,, arnekhta, makhlut, mila-hita, Mixture, s.
Mock, v munh banana, chirana, luhvana, maskhara k. Moderator, s, mir-i-majlis, mudabbir. U , badr, purn-masi ; 's change, s. CJ na P chabna. Ava tan - Native, a. Newh r , Ojd. Not wit hstanding, c. ONT Official, a. Outlandish, a ajnabi, garib, berawaj.
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